Autonomous Collective Protection System (CPS)
Navy SBIR 2019.2 - Topic N192-119
NAVSEA - Mr. Dean Putnam - firstname.lastname@example.org
Opens: May 31, 2019 - Closes: July 1, 2019 (8:00 PM ET)
TECHNOLOGY AREA(S): Chemical/Biological Defense ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PMS 407 Surface Ship Modernization
OBJECTIVE: Develop an autonomous control system that integrates Chemical, Biological, or Radiological (CBR) detectors with a shipboard Collective Protection System (CPS) to improve a ship’s threat response time and provide operational cost savings.
DESCRIPTION: The purpose of the Navy’s CPS is to protect personnel and designated ship spaces from CBR contamination. The CPS is designed to seamlessly integrate into the ship’s Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. Limited controls and autonomy resulted in a system that provides full protection 100% of the time with no scaled response to current threat conditions.
CPSs provide protection against CBR agents by filtering supply air to the zone to remove CBR agents including radioactive particles, biological particles, and a wide range of chemicals. Controlled access to CPS zones requires the use of decontamination stations and airlocks. Commercial detection technologies provide varying levels of technology readiness and are currently not viable for the Navy.
The current CPS uses CBR detectors (i.e., point detectors) common across all shipboard CPS systems to enable some threat analysis; however, the system constantly provides “over-pressurizing” to the zone at about 2-2.5 water gage relative to the atmosphere with excess clean air to ensure air constantly leaks out and no contaminants leak in. This over-pressurizing has an impact on HVAC loads.
The CPSs have recently been upgraded with a Variable Speed Drive (VSD) control system, incorporating programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and human machine interfaces (HMIs) with sensors and other instrumentation for static pressure, differential pressure, temperature, and humidity. The recent VSD upgrade allows for varying levels of automation where fans could be slowed when full power was not needed. The reduction in fan speeds will reduce power use and HVAC loads, and could help to avoid conditions like fan stall, which would eventually lead to expensive repairs. Currently available commercial technologies vary in levels of technology readiness. Technologies used in the commercial sectors are often driven by packaging and size restrictions. In most instances, commercial technology does not utilize a CPS or bio detectors as required by the Navy’s protection systems. The Navy desires solutions that will enable advanced automation to this upgraded CPS and that can incorporate threat analysis from CBR detectors to provide the ship’s crew with an autonomous CPS response to threats. Alarming and notification of specific threats will also provide better response coordination for the ship’s force.
Coupling this advanced threat analysis and response system with VSDs will also result in benefits such as reduced maintenance and operational costs, increased system lifespan, and reduced HVAC loads and energy consumption required. This upgrade will also provide for reduced filter logistics/sparing and overall improved system situational awareness. Expected benefits include improvements in cost, installation, maintenance, and resupply. Reduced air flows will allow for the current CBR filter lives to be extended or would allow for the use of new and/or advanced CBR filters. Current DDG Flight IIA CPS VSD installation costs are approximately $1.8M per ship with CPS energy savings of approximately 63%.
The current CPS system operates in one of three modes manually selected by ship’s force. The “Normal” mode controls the supply fan speed to provide a set airflow rate for the protected zone. Normal mode provides the minimum airflow necessary to maintain requirements and uses the lowest level of energy consumption. The system operates in this mode the majority of the time. “CBR Threat” mode controls the supply fan speeds to provide a set over-pressure for the zone. Ship’s force sets this mode only when the ship is operating in a CBR threat environment. “Full Speed” mode operates the supply fans at maximum speed similar to the legacy CPS configuration. Ship’s force can set Full Speed mode (i.e., maximum airflow) when de-smoking of a space is required. Full Speed mode uses the highest rate of energy consumption. Autonomous CPS system controls will provide additional efficiencies by reducing sailor inputs, increasing system reliability, and enabling more efficient system operation.
Future Navy ships require an autonomous, efficient CPS that fully integrates CBR and other pertinent sensor data and that is capable of using CBR sensor data to set the CPS Condition. The Navy desires that an automation system that will allow for manual override, local ON/OFF, fully autonomous and any other level of automation proposed by the small business. Currently, CPS VSD ship operators are notified by one of the three detection systems (chemical, biological and radiological) that a threat is present. The ship operators must then manually increase the CPS operation from “Normal” mode to “CBR Threat” mode. The ability to automate responses from minimum sensor
inputs for chemical, biological and radiation levels directly into CPS would eliminate variable human decision time, greatly increasing crew protection in the event of an actual CBR event. The desired overall future state is a control system that integrates CBR detection with CPS to improve the ship’s overall response to contamination.
Currently the shipboard detectors and the CPS system are independent of each other continuing a fundamental capability gap in automation of crew CBR protection. Current reliance on ship’s force to maintain optimal situational condition settings for the CPS is inefficient and potentially less safe. Implementing an autonomous, efficient CPS utilizing CBR threat and sensor data will benefit the Navy by increasing system lifespan, reduce maintenance, and significantly reduce energy consumption due to optimized operation.
The Navy would like to achieve an energy savings from CPS autonomous automation of 50% on DDG 51 Flt IIA ships.
PHASE I: Develop a concept for an autonomous collective protection system (CPS) capable of utilizing Navy CBR sensor and control system data to establish CPS autonomy and improve efficiency. Demonstrate that the autonomous CPS will work with CBR sensors on ships. Develop a CPS that incorporates the Navy point detector sensors and correlate with autonomous CPS operation. Demonstrate the viability of the concept in meeting Navy requirements described in the Description and will establish that the system can be feasibly developed into a useful product for the Navy. Establish feasibility by modeling and simulation of an autonomous CPS of appropriate scale and technology capability. Develop a Phase II plan. The Phase I Option, if exercised, will address technical risk reduction and provide performance goals and key technical milestones.
PHASE II: Develop and deliver a prototype to the Navy for evaluation in meeting the performance goals defined in the Phase II SOW and the Navy requirements for an autonomous CPS capable of using CBR sensor data to set the CPS Condition. Demonstrate system performance through evaluation in a Navy-approved laboratory as well as modeling or analytical methods over the required range of parameters to demonstrate ability to meet the performance goals for the CPS. Based on analysis performed during Phase II, recommend test fixtures and methodologies to support shock (MIL-S-901), vibration (MIL-STD-167-1) and Electromagnetic Interference (MIL- STD-461) qualification. Employ evaluation results in collaboration with the Navy design team to refine the prototype into a design that will meet Navy needs. Provide detailed drawings, code, and specifications in the defined format. Conduct performance integration and risk assessments, and develop a cost benefit analysis and cost estimate for a naval shipboard system. Prepare a Phase III development plan to transition the technology to Navy and potential commercial use.
PHASE III DUAL USE APPLICATIONS: Support the Navy in transitioning the system for Navy use. Jointly determine with the Navy appropriate systems for replacement or modification of existing CPSs with the system developed for operational evaluation. Working with the Navy and applicable Industry partners via the Navy Modernization Process, demonstrate the autonomous CPS capability on a relevant system to support improved system operations. Target platforms for transition will be ships with installed CPSs, which include DDG 51, DDG 1000, LSD, LHD, LPD, and LHA classes. Other potential applications include Military Sealift Command T-AOE class, U.S. Coast Guard WMSL class ships, and commercial vendors such as large scale crop operations, chemical production plants, and universities.
1. Liska, B., et al. “Shipboard Collective Protection System Modernization for Improved Energy Efficiency and Total Ownership Cost Reduction.” American Society of Naval Engineers Intelligent Ship Symposium IX, May 2011. http://www.navalengineers.org/Resources/Product-Info/productcd/ISS2011
2. Hubble, K. “Energy Savings from Application of Variable Speed Drives (VSD) Motor Controllers in U.S. Navy Ships.” American Society of Naval Engineers Fleet Maintenance & Modernization Symposium, September 2010. http://www.navalengineers.org/Resources/Product-Info/productcd/FMMS2010
3. “Section 5 – Collective Protection Systems.” NSTM S9086-RQ-STM-010, Chapter 510 – Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Systems for Surface Ships, pp. 510-556, Commander, Naval Sea Systems Command, 1 May
4. Gallimore, A., et al. “Energy Cost Savings and Implementation of the Collective Protection System Variable Speed Drive (CPS VSD) Control System.” American Society of Naval Engineers Fleet Maintenance & Modernization Symposium, July 2017. http://www.navalengineers.org/Resources/Product- Info/productcd/FMMS2017-Proceedings
5. Snodgrass, R., et al. “Collective Protection System Variable Speed Drive Control System Total Ownership Cost Savings.” Intelligent Ship Symposium 2015, American Society of Naval Engineers, May 2015. http://www.navalengineers.org/Resources/Product-Info/productcd/ISS2015
6. MIL-S-901D, MILITARY SPECIFICATION: SHOCK TESTS. H.I. (HIGH-IMPACT) SHIPBOARD MACHINERY, EQUIPMENT, AND SYSTEMS, REQUIREMENTS FOR (17 MAR 1989) http://everyspec.com/MIL-SPECS/MIL-SPECS-MIL-S/MIL-S-901D_14581/
7. MIL-STD-167/1A, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TEST METHOD STANDARD: MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS OF SHIPBOARD EQUIPMENT (TYPE I-ENVIRONMENTAL AND TYPE II-INTERNALLY http://everyspec.com/MIL-STD/MIL-STD-0100-0299/MIL-STD-167-1A_22418/
8. MIL-STD-461, MILITARY STANDARD: ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE CHARACTERISTICS REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT http://everyspec.com/MIL-STD/MIL-STD-0300-0499/MIL-STD- 461_8678/
KEYWORDS: Collective Protection System; CPS; Autonomous Operation; Variable Speed Drives; VSD; Chemical, Biological and Radiological; CBR; Chemical and Biological Detection Sensors; Atmospheric Overpressure