Application of Phase Noise Discrimination to Electronic Warfare (EW)
Navy SBIR 2014.1 - Topic N141-033
NAVSEA - Mr. Dean Putnam - [email protected]
Opens: Dec 20, 2013 - Closes: Jan 22, 2014

N141-033 TITLE: Application of Phase Noise Discrimination to Electronic Warfare (EW)

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Electronics, Battlespace


RESTRICTION ON PERFORMANCE BY FOREIGN CITIZENS (i.e., those holding non-U.S. Passports): This topic is "ITAR Restricted". The information and materials provided pursuant to or resulting from this topic are restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120 - 130, which control the export of defense-related material and services, including the export of sensitive technical data. Foreign Citizens may perform work under an award resulting from this topic only if they hold the "Permanent Resident Card", or are designated as "Protected Individuals" as defined by 8 U.S.C. 1324b(a)(3). If a proposal for this topic contains participation by a foreign citizen who is not in one of the above two categories, the proposal will be rejected.

OBJECTIVE: Research and develop methods to detect and quantify the phase noise and phase noise statistical parameters that correlate to threat types and platforms.

DESCRIPTION: Phase noise is the change in the relative electrical phase of a radio frequency (RF) signal caused by other than intended modulations. Phase noise is generated not only by idiosyncrasies of the transmitter, but by the superposition of reflections from side and back lobes of the threat platform [Ref 1]. The statistical distribution of amplitude and phase from these scattering centers correlates with the physical extent and material composition of the radiating platform. The effect is relatively small and difficult to measure.

Newer imaging radars can provide target details to support non-cooperative target classification and identification. The objective of this topic is to provide a like capability, but by passive means. This would be especially useful under conditions when the active sensors are not available such as EMCON or when a resource limitation due to jamming or a dense environment has been reached. Recent advances in receiver and signal processing technology have made it feasible to consider using phase noise in an operational environment. The Navy needs to determine the applicability of discrimination of phase noise from target radar and jammer intercepts as a means of passive non-cooperative target recognition, classification and identification.

Current passive Electronic Support Measures (ESM) rely on matching the modulation characteristics of an emitter, such as the radar�s Pulse Repetition Interval (PRI), Frequency, and Pulse width to a previously determined set of parameters.

The major limitations of this approach are:
1) The parameter sets, in many cases, are not complete or unique, which causes ambiguous identifications;
2) Error free measurements are difficult to achieve under operational conditions;
3) These parameters can be changed to spoof the detection system.

Therefore, a need exists to add additional independent discriminants [Ref 2, 3] so as to provide a more robust identification process. Since phase noise is a higher order effect, usually measured with advanced analysis receivers, an innovative approach that is practically implementable in an operational system will be required. It is proposed that this development be performed with the aim of adding this signal processing capability to future EW systems, particularly Surface Electronic Warfare Improvement Program (SEWIP) Block 2/3.

PHASE I: The company will determine the applicability and feasibility of implementing phase noise target discrimination algorithms into SEWIP Block 2/3 EW systems. The basic approach should include the development of phase noise models for various types of platforms/emitters in order to determine detectability and degree of correlation of the phase noise parameters and statistics with the platform and emitter types. The small business will provide a Phase II development plan that addresses technical risk reduction and provide performance goals and key technical milestones.

PHASE II: Based on the results of Phase I and the Phase II development plan, the small business will develop an implementation of their processes in a hardware baseboard system suitable for field/range testing. Evaluation results will be used to refine their product into an initial design that will meet Navy requirements. The company will prepare a Phase III development plan to transition the technology to Navy use.

PHASE III: The company will be expected to support the Navy in transitioning the technology for Navy use. This will include working with SEWIP Block 2/3 industry teams to implement the algorithms in fielded and future systems. The company will support the Navy for test and validation to certify and qualify the system for Navy use.

PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: The technology developed here may have applicability to commercial radar applications such as air traffic control, ground surveillance radar, weather radars, and Navy and Coast Guard systems. Furthermore, any system, passive or active, that can benefit from more precise and detailed analysis of detected signals, will enhance its performance and capabilities by using this technology.

1. Juan Diego Morales, David Blanco, Diego Pablo Ruiz, and María Carmen Carrión, "Non Cooperative Radar Target Identification Using Exponential Single-Mode Extraction Pulse"; IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 59, NO. 6, JUNE 2011


3. Kastella, Keith, "A Nonlinear Filter for Real-Time Joint Tracking and Recognition" Lockheed-Martin Tactical Defense Systems, Eagan December 31, 1997

KEYWORDS: Signal processing; Non-Cooperative Target Recognition; Electronic Support Measures; Electronic Warfare Systems; Phase Noise; Surface Electronic Warfare Improvement

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